Views:7 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-10-04 Origin:Site
Chickpeas are a plant of the genus Chickpeas in the leguminous family, which is a niche legume food. In our country, chickpeas are a commonly used medicinal material. According to the records of "Baidiyi Medicine Book", it can "strengthen muscles and muscles, remove cold and dampness, relieve pain" and so on. "The Garden of Medicine" records that it can "enhance natural energy, nourish the lungs, strengthen the waist, produce blood, appetite, fat body, fix hair, nourish hair, dispel spots and radiate" and so on. Modern research points out that chickpeas contain multiple active ingredients such as polysaccharides, phospholipids, phenols, and isoflavones, which have multiple functions and are functional food resources worth developing.
According to the information in the Food Database of the United States Department of Agriculture, every 100 grams of cooked chickpeas (without salt) contains about 27 grams of carbohydrates, 2.6 grams of fat, 8.9 grams of protein and 7.6 grams of dietary fiber. Chickpea protein contains 18 kinds of amino acids. The total amino acid content is 869 mg per gram, and the essential amino acid content is 353 mg per gram, which is close to the ideal protein amino acid composition recommended by WHO/FAO of 360 mg per gram. At the same time, the fat content is low, 75% of the fat contained is unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid and linoleic acid. In addition, chickpeas are also rich in calcium, potassium, magnesium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C and fiber, and have low sodium content.
Chickpeas also have a lower glycemic index GI. According to the data of "China Type 1 Diabetes Guidelines 2012", the GI value of raw chickpeas is 33, and the GI value of canned chickpeas is 42. Generally, if the GI value is lower than 55, it is considered a low GI food. A diet of GI food helps blood sugar management. At the same time, the fiber and protein contained in chickpeas can also help regulate blood sugar.
Chickpeas have a mild flavor and creamy texture. Compared with other beans, the taste is relatively neutral, and it is not easy to affect the taste of other foods. Chickpea protein also has stable emulsifying properties and foaming properties, and can be used as a raw material for vegetarian eggs and milk; boiled water can be used as a substitute for egg whites and can be beaten as a vegetable cream. The chickpea starch that has recently appeared on the market has good gelling and thickening properties.
Chickpea protein itself is not only a source of high-quality protein, but also a binding effect. The protein extract contains fiber, protein and starch at the same time, so only the chickpea protein extract can simulate the texture of plant meat and meet the needs of clean labels.
Raw chickpeas are often sold in the form of canned and dried chickpeas. In processed foods, it can be applied to chickpeas from spreads to substitute dairy products, plant meats and snacks; in addition, as a flour substitute, it can be partly used to make pasta and baked goods; it appears in snacks Puff bars, crispy chips, ice cream, pudding, etc. with chickpeas are available in different forms and tastes.
The taste of raw materials is a non-negligible part of the product. Many plant proteins produce bitterness or some undesirable flavors. This makes it necessary to add sugar, artificial flavors or other masking agents to plant-based products to cover up these flavors. Chickpeas have a neutral taste, so the use of the above additives can be greatly reduced. In addition, milk, nuts, soybeans and other bulk dairy raw materials are all very common allergens. In contrast, allergies to chickpeas are extremely rare.
Although chickpeas are not complete proteins like soybeans, eggs or casein, they are high-quality concentrated protein sources with a digestibility rate of 93%, which is a high level in the field of plant protein. When making artificial meat products with textured plant protein, it is usually necessary to add pea fiber or combine with other proteins, and sometimes tapioca starch is even used. The chickpea protein extract itself contains the required fiber, protein and natural starch, so this single component can be used to meet the texture requirements. In addition, chickpea protein does not require the use of additives such as methyl cellulose with gel and emulsifying functions.
The data shows that the global growth rate of plant milk is three times the average level of the food and beverage industry. From 2014 to 2018, the compound annual growth rate of global plant milk was 22%, and the overall demand is increasing rapidly. However, vegetable milk has always been difficult to solve the solubility and taste problems, while chickpea isolate has high solubility, high protein content, and neutral flavor, which is very suitable for replacing milk. Plant-based dairy products made from chickpeas can better imitate the flavor, taste and nutritional value of milk and yogurt.
In terms of plant meat, chickpeas also show good prospects. Finding more protein sources suitable for plant-based meat production can be said to be the biggest challenge facing the industry today. Reorganizing the protein structure through extrusion or other techniques to imitate the texture of meat to the greatest extent is also one of the difficult problems to solve at present.
It is understood that some raw material suppliers in the United States have produced the world's first chickpea plant tissue protein through a drying process, which is used to make burgers and sausages and other foods. The protein has small and uniform particle size, neutral flavor, good taste and appearance. Its good functional properties, water-oil binding quality, freeze-thaw stability and suspension are helpful for the choice of alternative plant meat. An industry insider said: "Chickpea protein products are tight but not mushy, not too soft, easy to shape but not sticky."