Views:2 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-09-29 Origin:Site
Sun Qingjie, Dean of the School of Food Science and Engineering of Qingdao Agricultural University, stated at the 2020 Taishan Academic Forum that the nutritional properties of peanut protein are mainly manifested as: first, enhancing memory. The content of aspartic acid and glutamic acid in peanut protein is high. These two amino acids It has obvious effects on promoting brain cell development and enhancing memory; second, it is easy to digest and absorb, peanut protein is rich in vitamins, minerals, and active ingredients such as polysaccharides, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, etc., which are easily digested and absorbed by the human body; Enhance immunity, peanut protein does not contain cholesterol and is low in allergenicity. It is good for patients with diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and gastrointestinal diseases to restore their health.
The excellent solubility, emulsification, and gel properties of peanut protein give it excellent processing characteristics. It can be widely used in infant formula foods, nutritious foods, medical foods, athlete foods, etc., and is a kind of "high potential for development. Functional factor".
Sun Qingjie introduced that the solubility of peanut protein is about 50%-75%, and its solubility is directly related to other properties such as emulsification and gelation. The preparation of peanut protein with high nitrogen solubility index (NSI) has a wider range in the food industry. Application prospects; the peanut protein extracted from defatted peanut flour shows good emulsifying properties, and its emulsifying activity (EAI value) can reach about 244; its flocculation index (FI) and coalescence index (CI) are low, which can resist freedom The gel strength of peanut protein is mainly affected by the protein concentration, pH and ionic strength of the solution, heating temperature and time, etc., and it can usually be through physical stability. (Heat treatment, high pressure homogenization, ultrasonic treatment), chemical (addition of β-mercaptoethanol, sulfite) and enzymatic (transglutaminase cross-linking) modification to improve the gelation of peanut protein.
Widely used but the preparation technology has shortcomings
Sun Qingjie believes that the current application of peanut protein in food systems is relatively extensive, mainly focusing on protein fortification, puffed food, cereal flour, fat and animal protein substitution. Although there is a relatively complete system for the production and application of peanut protein, there are still many problems. For example, most of the current industrialized peanut meal is a by-product obtained by high-temperature pressing of peanuts, because the high temperature easily denatures the protein and makes it difficult to be used by the food industry. At present, only low-temperature cold pressing technology can be used to prepare edible peanut protein. How to make edible peanut protein using high-temperature meal is a difficult problem to be solved in the future. Commonly produced varieties of peanut protein include peanut protein powder, peanut protein isolate, peanut protein concentrate, peanut protein peptide, peanut tissue and drawing protein.
Adding an appropriate amount of peanut protein powder to the noodles can not only increase the protein content of the noodles, but also significantly change the processing properties of the noodles. When the addition amount of peanut protein powder is 5%, the appearance of noodles and the bending and breaking rate are the best. Add peanut protein powder to flour to make puffed food. Peanut protein has good emulsification, gelation and water absorption properties, and is a good emulsifier, binder, and filler for meat products. Adding peanut protein powder to fish sausages, fish sausages, and ham sausages can improve the water and oil retention of the products, promote fat emulsification and protein gelation, and prevent oil loss. The meat products produced have high protein content, fine tissue and good taste. The use of peanut protein powder can produce solid beverages, such as peanut protein powder and peanut paste. Liquid beverages such as peanut milk and lactic acid bacteria can ferment to produce peanut yogurt. Adding peanut protein to ice cream can increase the emulsification of the product, increase the expansion rate, and improve the quality of the product. , Improve the nutritional structure.
There are still various problems in the preparation technology of peanut protein, such as purity, environmental pollution, and cost. Sun Qingjie pointed out that in this regard, the water enzymatic method is a useful attempt, but there is still a long way to go to achieve industrialization. At the same time, the functional properties of natural peanut protein cannot fully meet the requirements of the food industry, and it needs to be modified to a certain extent. Whether it is chemical modification, physical or enzymatic modification, there are certain shortcomings, and further research on modification methods is needed. In addition, in terms of food applications, there are relatively few theoretical discussions. Actively developing in-depth discussions on the structure and functionality of peanut protein will help develop better peanut protein products.