Views: 10 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-04-23 Origin: Site
Glycosides are molecules that contain glucose residues bound to other nonsugar substances called aglycones (molecules with other sugars are polysaccharides).Preliminary experiments concluded that the tongue's taste receptors respond to glycosides and transduce the sweet sensation and lingering bitter aftertaste by directly activating sweet and bitter receptors.According to basic research, steviol glycosides and steviol interact with a protein channel called TRPM5 to enhance signals from sweet or bitter taste receptors and enhance the taste of other sweet, bitter and umami tastants.Cooperative action of glycosides on sweet receptors and TRPM5 explains sweet taste perception.Some steviol glycosides (rebaudioside A) are considered sweeter than others (steviosides).Steviol is processed by the gut microbiota, is also absorbed into the blood is further metabolized by the liver to steviol glycosides and several other metabolites,and is excreted in the urine.A three-dimensional map of the protein produced by the stevia plant was reported in 2019, showing the crystal structure of the sweet and bitter aftertaste in the sweetener.
A review found that using stevia sweetener as a sugar substitute may benefit children,people with diabetes and those looking to reduce their calorie intake. Although both steviol and rebaudioside.A have been found to be mutagenic in laboratory in vitro testing,these effects have not been demonstrated for human exposure at dose and route of administration.Two 2010 retrospective studies found no health concerns with stevia or its sweetener extracts.
As an extract, stevia leaf has traditionally been used as a contraceptive in Paraguay.The WHO JECFA has approved an acceptable daily intake of steviol glycosides up to 4 mg/kg bw based on long-term studies‰60‰In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority established an acceptable daily intake of 4 mg/kg/day for the form of steviol glycosides.Meanwhile,In August 2019, due to safety and potential toxicity concerns, the US FDA issued an import alert for stevia leaves and crude extracts that do not have GRAS status, and foods or dietary supplements containing them.